Dentures

Our teeth play a considerable role in chewing function. If we mention about tooth losses, like negative health indications experienced in other parts of our body in years, losses are seen in our teeth as well.

Dentures are used at that point. Occurring tooth losses may be eliminated with different denture types depending on number of losses.

Fixed Dentures
Fixed dentures are the dentures type that are fixed on adjacent tooth for teeth losses occurring in time and that are perceived by the patient as his/her own teeth. Crowns, which eliminate substance losses on a single teeth or bridges which complete missing teeth, are called as fixed dentures.

Crown
Damage occurring on the teeth due to decaying or trauma may cause loss of a considerable part of the teeth and weakens the teeth in some circumstances. In order to strengthen the teeth in terms of endurance, it should be coated with metal, ceramic or full ceramic restorations. This coating, restoring the teeth shape, color and function, is called as crown.

Bridges
Bridge method is one of the methods used in elimination of teeth losses. Missing teeth or tooth are tried to be restored via bridges applied with support of adjacent tooth. Therefore, adjacent teeth are degraded at a certain rate. Bridges generally consist of a metal substructure that can resist chewing forces and the superstructure providing the aesthetic look. However, it is possible to create more aesthetic and natural bridges only with porcelain thanks to current technology.

Removable Dentures
Removable denture is a commonly used treatment in completion of missing teeth. It is applied when the number of missing teeth cannot be tolerated with a fixed denture. The denture is called as partial denture when it completes a part of missing teeth on the jaw, and as total denture when all teeth in the jaw are missing.

We all worry about other people recognizing our dentures if we use them. However, today’s technology gives the opportunity to achieve a natural look and fully fulfill aesthetic expectations of the patient with dentures.

If you lose all or a part of your teeth, dentures will correct your look, speech, chewing and biting functions. If denture is not applied, natural teeth may incline towards the space where adjacent teeth are missing; upper teeth may shift downwards and lower teeth shift upwards. In this case, that prevents your remaining teeth to perform chewing and biting functions in a healthy way. Dentures may applied in your mouth immediately after removing your teeth; this type of dentures are called as “immediate dentures”.

Cleaning Removable Dentures
If you have a removable denture, their cleaning has a considerable role. Cleaning of dentures is easier than cleaning natural teeth.

Points to take into account

  • In order not to break the denture, wash it in a vessel full of water, thus, risk of breaking due to falling is eliminated.

Dentures Over Implant
Implant is a method used for completing missing teeth. As a part of the implant is placed in the bone via a surgical method like the natural tooth root, patients feel and use implants like natural teeth. This process is generally applied with local anesthesia. You can receive this process in our hospital in the operation room with general anesthesia or sedation. Following union of implants with the jaw bone, fixed or removable dentures are applied on them.

Pedodontics

Pedodontics is the major science branch aiming to protect milk teeth and permanent teeth of 0-14 age group children and treating diseases occurred.

All required dental treatments are applied by pedodontists to health and disabled children. Particularly for teeth treatments of children younger than 4 ages, children with extended treatment and disabled children with retarded development, treatments are generally applied with general anesthesia. Excellent mouth and teeth health of children can be maintained with the pedodontist control regularly performed once in 6 months. During these controls, all kinds of problems threatening mouth and teeth health can be detected. The important point is early diagnosis and treatment of these problems. Early diagnosis positively affects the physical and sensual development of the child.

Initial treatment starts for child patients by communicating with the child and his / her parents. After introduction, medical and dental history of the patient is received. Then, clinical and radiographic examination are applied. Following these stages, patient and related parent is informed regarding the diagnosis and treatment planning. Pedodontists particularly apply many methods to protect milk teeth and permanent teeth from main mouth diseases such as decaying and periodontal diseases.

Diagnosis Methods
Fluoride treatments, which are accepted as the most effective treatment by the preventive dentistry, can be implemented for treatment of teeth sensitivity and erosion in healthy individuals and patients with the tendency of decaying, and individuals with systemic diseases requiring special care. Applications are realized with frequencies and amounts defined according to individual’s age and risk of decaying.

Treatment Methods
Indentations and protrusions on chewing surfaces of grinder teeth create areas where foods can adhere to.

Fissure lacquers cover these surfaces on teeth and reduce adherence of food and help to create a surface to ease brushing. It is known that decaying is reduced by 70 – 80% as the result of clinical applications.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

In order to help denture application, it covers corrections applied on solid and soft tissues of the mouth. In fact, the maxillofacial surgery title is a very general and effective treatment model, therefore, jaw-face area, lower jaw joint, salivary gland diseases are included in the maxillofacial surgery. Detection and treatment of various systemic diseases, symptoms in the mouth are solved under this topic.

It covers implant surgery applications those are commonly used in the dentistry such as placement of implants into the haw, placement of bone grafts due to inadequate bone that is required for implant.

Another issue within scope of the maxillofacial surgery, is maxillofacial anomalies that are from birth and later periods. Cleft palates and cleft lips, distorted chewing function and aesthetic due to forward or backward placement of lower or upper jaw are commonly encountered.

Diagnosis Methods
Advanced techniques using traditional techniques such as x-ray and achieving three dimensional bone model of the patient with the support of tomography are used within scope of maxillofacial diagnosis methods.

Therefore, exact diagnosis is made prior to operation and the operation plan can be performed completely. In order to succeed during diagnosis and treatment, multidisciplinary work is required with other specialty areas of dentistry such as orthodontics and prosthodontics.

Endodontics (Root Canal Treatments)

Endodontics is the major science branch which particularly root canal treatments are realized. Today, the root canal treatment is generally performed in one session for live teeth, and two sessions for played out teeth.

About the Teeth Anatomy
Part of the tooth seen in the mouth is called as crown, and the part not seen in the mouth and remaining in the bone is called as root. Our teeth consist of few layers. Tooth enamel is the part which is seen in our mouth, namely the outer part of the crown. Cement layer covers the root part that is surrounded with bone and remaining under the gingiva. Dentin layer is under the tooth enamel and cement layers. Characteristic of the dentin is being the largest layer of the tooth and containing neural crests, in contrast to the enamel layer. This characteristic provides a role in the pain mechanism.

Dental pulp is available under the dentin layer. This part contains tooth vein and nerves. Pulp plays an important role during tooth eruption and growth. Also, it transmits problems of our teeth through its pain mechanism after the tooth eruption.

How the pulp gets infected?
Everyone has bacteria in the mouth cavity. Bacteria unions with many foods we eat and create acids in our mouth. If we fail to eliminate these acids from our mouth, they will damage the enamel and cause decays in the enamel layer. If decays occurring on the enamel are not treated, they progress towards the dentin layer under the enamel layer. If the decay is not treated despite the warning sent by the dentin layer through pain, microorganisms will progress towards the pulp. Meanwhile, pulp activates various methods to protect itself. One of these methods is to warn us via pain but if we fail to treat our tooth again, microorganisms will damage veins and nerves in the pulp and create infection.

Another way to create infection in the pulp is trauma. An outsourced impact on the tooth may cause rupture of veins and nerves going from the root end to tooth root, thus fading away the tooth. Addition of microorganisms thrpugh any way will cause pulp infection. Another way to infect the pulp is to have long term periodontal disease around the tooth.

How can we detect infection of a tooth?
The tooth ache occurring during cold and hot food consumption and the tooth sensitivity may be indicators of the commencement of an infection. Excessive color changes occurring on teeth may be included in these infection indications. Besides, the infection reaches from root end to jaw bone on teeth not treated despite the decay reaching up to the pulp and may cause small, large swelling on the face. In this case, fight against infection can be possible with applications of the dentist as well as antibiotics use. The general opinion is that the tooth causing swelling on the face should be removed after the swelling is eliminated, but this a very old opinion. At that point, even teeth causing infections may be kept in the mouth through root canal treatment and this tooth can serve you for years like a health tooth.

What are stages of root canal treatment?

  1. Detecting the problematic tooth via radiography.
  2. If the tooth is alive, eliminating the sensitivity on the tooth and surrounding tissues with local anesthesia.
  3. Cleaning decays in enamel and dentin layers of the tooth and creating the space to reach the pulp.
  4. Detecting the working length via electronic tools and confirming with radiography.
  5. Eliminating and removing infected dentin layers and microorganisms in the root canal via rotating tool systems.
  6. Eliminating microorganisms via various root canal disinfectants while using rotating tool systems in root canals.
  7. If the tooth is not alive while starting the canal treatment, waiting for a certain period with a canal antiseptics to be placed in the root canal and filling root canals at the next session.

Following the root canal treatment, relation of the tooth with surrounding tissues is interrupted and it is aimed to prevent re-occurrence of infection and repairing any possible damages at surrounding tissues of the tooth.

Therefore, the success rate reaches to 90% in canal treatments with correct treatment method.

Periodontology (Gingiva Diseases)

This major science branch deals with infectious diseases revealing at teeth tissues and surrounding tissues and their treatment.

Periodontitis disease is an infectious type characterized by tooth and tooth supporting tissue destructions (periodontal ligament, cement, alveol bone). Gingiva infection is progressed until the alveol bone (jaw bone). Main reason is bacteria plaques, and can be treated mechanically. Reasons of the disease include genetic, environmental and systematic factors. Epilepsy, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, down syndrome, AIDS and blood diseases are also among the systemic factors.

Gingival bleeding is the first sign of periodontal diseases. Reddened gums, swollen and bright surface. Most of the time, these symptoms, bad breath, itching in the gums, bleeding sensation, teeth sensitivity can be added.

Periodontal diseases may affect people at different ages from childhood to old age. Most of the time, the patient does not have any complaints such as pain can progress without symptoms. When the patient complains, intact, decayed teeth are lost by shaking due to the loss of supportive tissues.

If the main teeth can be saved, no matter how unhealthy, all necessary treatment methods should be applied in order to avoid loss. Periodontal therapy comes into play at this point. Different treatment methods can be applied according to the type and severity of the disease. These; primarily oral hygiene education, dental calculus cleaning, root flattening, regenerative, reconstructive and mucogingival operations can be summarized simply. Periodontal treatment may be included in providing gingival aesthetics of individuals with a high laughing line. The habits of the patient and the cooperation with the specialist physician, oral hygiene and treatment planning directly affect the success.

No restorative treatment can be applied to periodontally healthy teeth.

Conservative (Restorative) Teeth Treatments

Filling Treatment

It is the cleaning of dental decays and filling the cavity formed in the teeth with an artificial filling material.

Reasons of Decayed Tooth,

  • Bacteria plaque,
  • Foods containing carbohydrates (sugar, flour, etc.)
  • Physical factors (tooth structure, gingiva composition, etc.)
  • Time (food staying period in the mouth)

The Bacterial plaque formed by bacteria in the mouth can form acid due to sugar and bakery food residues in the mouth. These acids dissolve the tooth’s mineral tissue and disrupt the enamel of the tooth, causing cavities on the tooth that we call cavities.

Diagnosis Methods
Dental caries may occur on the chewing surface of the tooth, on the contacting surfaces of the teeth or on the neck regions of the teeth. Browning or cavities on visible surfaces are easy to identify, but X-rays are also necessary for caries that do not produce these symptoms.

When the decay in the enamel tissue of the tooth is not treated, it proceeds to the dentine tissue. Dentine is a structure that dissolves more easily than enamel, and therefore, caries progression is fast. In a caries that have reached dentine tissue, the patient may have hot, cold, sour and sweet tenderness as a result of an agent. This pain disappears when the agent disappears. If the pain has persisted, it has advanced to the pulp layer where the vascular-nerve package of the decayed tooth is collected and canal treatment is required.

Treatment Methods

Composite Fill
It is a plastic mixture containing silicon dioxide particles. It is not noticed in the tooth with various color options and is also called as aesthetic-white filling. For a period, the material used only in the front teeth was strengthened by various methods and made suitable for the rear teeth. The filler material placed on the tooth using a special binding agent is cured with the light device and polished in the same session.

Porcelain Fill
Measure is taken from the cavity prepared in porcelain fillings and sent to the laboratory. When the patient comes to the next session, the polished porcelain filling is adhered to the cavity.

Amalgam Fill
It is formed by mixing silver, tin and copper alloy with 45-50% mercury. After the cavity is filled with amalgam filling material, it is recommended that the area is not used for two hours and that no hard material is chewed for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the hardening filler is polished and the process is completed.

Oral Implantology

Implants are artificial tooth roots placed on the jaw bone in order to restore their function and aesthetics instead of the teeth lost for various reasons. Teeth, which are an integral part of the facial aesthetics and provide integrity, can cause discomfort in terms of psychological and social environment as a result of losses. In addition to these factors, nutrition, digestive problems and speech disorders are observed to cause. Tooth deficiencies can be accomplished by conventional methods such as bridge prostheses attached to natural teeth or removable removable prostheses, as well as by implant-supported prostheses.

Single or Multiple Tooth Deficiencies
As a dentist, it is recommended that missing dental treatment will be more protective than implant restoration.

In order to make bridge prosthesis, healthy teeth will need to be covered as a result of the reduction. Replacing these bridges at regular intervals is not an economical solution. Instead, the missing tooth or implants to be placed in the cavity can be treated without damaging the healthy teeth located next to it.

Total Edentulism
Implant-supported prostheses, if there are no teeth in the mouth, nausea reflex and insufficient retention of the prosthesis, the removable prosthesis is not used to provide the comfort that the person needs.

What are stages of Implant?

Examination and Planning
The implant is made with a multidisciplinary approach. This is a team job; The surgical specialist who will place the implant into the jaw bone and the prosthetic specialist who will make the implant over the implant work together.

The implant can be applied to anyone except some people with certain systemic diseases, such as diabetes, which cannot be severely controlled. Because the implants are made of titanium and are positioned in place of the natural tooth root, they are tissue-compatible and do not cause any allergic or toxic discomfort.

During the examination, a detailed oral examination examines the relationship between the gums, the lower jaw and the upper jaw and the relationship between the teeth. In order to complete the treatment process with the least error, three-dimensional tomography is requested in complicated cases except classical radiographs, and a one-to-one measurement model of the jaw is determined and the areas where the implants will be placed are planned.

Placement of Implants
Proper planning is the starting point for the healthiest treatment. It is also important to have an expert, experienced team, the necessary equipment and the necessary hygienic environment to be involved in the operation. Implants are applied as a result of local anesthesia like other dental treatments. However, in some cases where jaw bone is not sufficient and tissue addition is necessary, long operations or over stressed patients can be operated comfortably under general anesthesia or sedation.

Application of Dentures
At the end of the operation, the implant called osseointegration should be attached to the bone surface. This process may vary according to bone structure. After the process is completed, the superstructure is created. After the operation, temporary prostheses are made to maintain aesthetics and function until prostheses are made.

Orthodontics

What is Orthodontics?

Orthodontics can be defined as diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental and jaw disorders. Perpendicular teeth do not only cause an undesirable aesthetic appearance. Perpendicular teeth, no matter how well looked at, how well brushed, cannot be fully cleaned, as they may cause tooth loss, caries and gum discomfort in the future. Therefore, orthodontic treatments are necessary not only because of aesthetic concerns, but also to ensure oral hygiene and to prevent future oral and dental disorders.

In recent years, patients of all ages are performing positive treatments. However, it is more effective to diagnose the problem at an early age and start treatment. For this reason, children should be checked in an orthodontist from the mixed dentition period (6-7 years).

Since orthodontic treatments can be completed in a long period, it should be remembered that the relationship between physician and patient and communication is very important in the treatment.

Teeth Bleaching

First of all, as a requirement of medical indication and also aesthetically applied to the teeth is the process of bleaching.

Bleaching may be used in various diseases such as medical indication tetracycline discolorations, fluorosis. Aesthetically, bleaching can be done to improve the psychology of the patient in very severe dark-tone teeth. Bleaching can be done by several techniques depending on the patient’s condition and the course of the case.

It is our smile that makes us feel noticed and gives us happiness. What makes our smile effective is our teeth. With yellowed teeth, we don’t even want to talk about laughing.

To have white teeth that will allow us to speak and laugh freely, we must brush our teeth regularly. Cigarettes, tea, coffee, cola are important factors that cause our teeth to turn yellow and we need to stay away from them to remain white.

Although we take maximum care of our teeth, the color may still not be the whiteness we want. This problem is usually observed with antibiotics of the tetracycline group, degeneration of the nerves in our teeth, old coatings or yellowing due to aging.

No matter how much we brush the yellowed teeth, it is difficult to achieve the whiteness we want. At this point, there is a need for the support of a specialist physician.